54B-70. Involuntary liquidation.

(a) The Commissioner of Banks with prior approval of the Commission may take custody of the books, records and assets of every kind and character of any association organized and operated under the provisions of this Chapter for any of the purposes hereinafter enumerated, if it reasonably appears from examinations or from reports made to the Commissioner of Banks that:

(1) The directors, officers, or liquidators have neglected, failed or refused to take such action which the Commissioner of Banks may deem necessary for the protection of the association, or have impeded or obstructed an examination; or

(2) The withdrawable capital of the association is impaired to the extent that the realizable value of its assets is insufficient to pay in full its creditors and holders of withdrawable accounts; or its liquidity fund or general reserve account is impaired; or

(3) The business of the association is being conducted in a fraudulent, illegal or unsafe manner, or that the association is in an unsafe or unsound condition to transact business; (any association which, except as authorized in writing by the Commissioner of Banks, fails to make full payment of any withdrawal when due is in an unsafe or unsound condition to transact business, notwithstanding such provisions of the certificate of incorporation or such statutes or regulations with respect to payment of withdrawals in event an association does not pay all withdrawals in full); or

(4) The officers, directors, or employees have assumed duties or performed acts in excess of those authorized by statute or regulation or charter, or without supplying the required bond; or,

(5) The association has experienced a substantial dissipation of assets or earnings due to any violation or violations of statute or regulation, or due to any unsafe or unsound practice or practices; or

(6) The association is insolvent, or is in imminent danger of insolvency or has suspended its ordinary business transactions due to insufficient funds; or

(7) The association is unable to continue operations.

(b) Unless the Commissioner of Banks finds that such an emergency exists which may result in loss to members, withdrawable account holders, stockholders, or creditors, and which requires that he take custody immediately, he shall first give written notice to the directors and officers specifying the conditions criticized and allowing a reasonable time in which corrections may be made before a receiver shall be appointed as outlined in subsection (d) below.

(c) The purposes for which the Commissioner of Banks may take custody of an association include examination or further examination; conservation of its assets; restoration of impaired capital; the making of any reasonable or equitable adjustment deemed necessary by the Commissioner of Banks under any plan of reorganization.

(d) If the Commissioner of Banks after taking custody of an association, finds that one or more of the reasons for having taken custody continue to exist through the period of his custody, with little or no likelihood of amelioration of the situation, then he shall appoint as receiver or co-receiver any qualified person, firm or corporation for the purpose of liquidation of the association, which receiver shall furnish bond in form, amount and with surety as the Commissioner of Banks may require. The Commissioner of Banks may appoint the association's withdrawable account insurance corporation or its nominee as the receiver, and such insuring corporation shall be permitted to serve without posting bond.

(e) In the event the Commissioner of Banks appoints a receiver for an association, he shall mail a certified copy of the appointment order by certified mail to the address of the association as it shall appear on the records of the Division, and to any previous receiver or other legal custodian of the association, and to any court or other authority to which such previous receiver or other legal custodian is subject. Notice of such appointment shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where such association has its principal office.

(f) Whenever a receiver for an association is appointed pursuant to subsection (d) above the association may within 30 days thereafter bring an action in the Superior Court of Wake County, for an order requiring the Commissioner of Banks to remove such receiver.

(g) The duly appointed and qualified receiver shall take possession promptly of the association for which he or it has been so appointed, in accordance with the terms of such appointment, by service of a certified copy of the Commissioner of Banks' appointment order upon the association at its principal office through the officer or employee who is present and appears to be in charge. Immediately upon taking possession of the association, the receiver shall take possession and title to books, records and assets of every description of such association. The receiver, by operation of law and without any conveyance or other instrument, act or deed, shall succeed to all the rights, titles, powers and privileges of the association, its members or stockholders, holders of withdrawable accounts, its officers and directors or any of them; and to the titles to the books, records and assets of every description of any previous receiver or other legal custodian of such association. Such members, stockholders, holders of withdrawable accounts, officers or directors, or any of them, shall not thereafter, except as hereinafter expressly provided, have or exercise any such rights, powers or privileges or act in connection with any assets or property of any nature of the association in receivership: Provided however, that any officer, director, member, stockholder, withdrawable account holder, or borrower of such association shall have the right to communicate with the Commissioner of Banks with respect to such receivership. The Commissioner of Banks, with the approval of the Commission, may at any time, direct the receiver to return the association to its previous or a newly constituted management. The Commissioner of Banks may provide for a meeting or meetings of the members or stockholders for any purpose, including, without any limitation on the generality of the foregoing, the election of directors or an increase in the number of directors, or both, or the election of an entire new board of directors; and may provide for a meeting or meetings of the directors for any purpose including, without any limitation on the generality of the foregoing, the filling of vacancies on the board, the removal of officers and the election of new officers, or for any of such purposes. Any such meeting of members or stockholders, or of directors, shall be supervised or conducted by a representative of the Commissioner of Banks.

(h) A duly appointed and qualified receiver shall have power and authority to:

(1) Demand, sue for, collect, receive and take into his possession all the goods and chattels, rights and credits, moneys and effects, lands and tenements, books, papers, choses in action, bills, notes, and property of every description of the association;

(2) Foreclose mortgages, deeds of trust, and other liens executed to the association to the extent the association would have had such right;

(3) Institute suits for the recovery of any estate, property, damages, or demands existing in favor of the association, and he shall, upon his own application, be substituted as party plaintiff in the place of the association in any suit or proceeding pending at the time of his appointment;

(4) Sell, convey, and assign all the property rights and interest owned by the association;

(5) Appoint agents to serve at his pleasure;

(6) Examine and investigate papers and persons, and pass on claims as provided in the regulations as prescribed by the Commissioner of Banks;

(7) Make and carry out agreements with the insuring corporation or with any other financial institution for the payment or assumption of the association liabilities, in whole or in part, and to sell, convey, transfer, pledge, or assign assets as security or otherwise and to make guarantees in connection therewith; and

(8) Perform all other acts which might be done by the employees, officers and directors.

Such powers shall be continued in effect until liquidation and dissolution or until return of the association to its prior or newly constituted management.

(i) A receiver may at any time during the receivership and prior to final liquidation be removed and a replacement appointed by the Commissioner of Banks.

(j) The Commissioner of Banks may determine that such liquidation proceedings should be discontinued. He shall then remove the receiver and restore all the rights, powers, and privileges of its members and stockholders, customers, employees, officers and directors, or restore such rights, powers, and privileges to its members, stockholders and customers, and grant such rights, powers and privileges to a newly constituted management, all as of the time of such restoration of the association to its management unless another time for such restoration shall be specified by the Commissioner of Banks. The return of an association to its management or to a newly constituted management from the possession of a receiver shall, by operation of law and without any conveyance or other instrument, act or deed, vest in such association the title to all property held by the receiver in his capacity as receiver for such association.

(k) A receiver may also be appointed under the authority of G.S. 1-502. No judge or court, however, shall appoint a receiver for any State association unless five days' advance notice of the motion, petition or application for appointment of a receiver shall have been given to such association and to the Commissioner of Banks.

(l ) Following the appointment of a receiver, the Commissioner of Banks shall request the Attorney General to institute an action in the name of the Commissioner of Banks in the superior court against the association for the orderly liquidation and dissolution of the association, and for an injunction to restrain the officers, directors and employees from continuing the operation of the association.

(m) Claims against a State association in receivership shall have the following order of priority for payment:

(1) Costs, expenses and debts of the association incurred on or after the date of the appointment of the receiver, including compensation for the receiver;

(2) Claims of holders of special purpose or thrift accounts;

(3) Claims of holders of withdrawable accounts;

(4) Claims of general creditors;

(5) Claims of stockholders of a stock association;

(6) All remaining assets to members and stockholders in an amount proportionate to their holdings as of the date of the appointment of the receiver.

(n) All claims of each class described within subsection (m) above shall be paid in full so long as sufficient assets remain. Members of the class for which the receiver cannot make payment in full because assets will be depleted during payment to such class shall be paid an amount proportionate to their total claims.

(o) The Commissioner of Banks shall have the authority to direct the payment of claims for which no provision is herein made, and may direct the payment of claims within a class. The Commissioner of Banks shall have the authority to promulgate rules and regulations governing the payment of claims by an association in receivership.

(p) When all assets of the association have been fully liquidated, and all claims and expenses have been paid or settled, and the receiver shall recommend a final distribution, the dissolution of the association in receivership shall be accomplished in the following manner:

(1) The receiver shall file with the Commissioner of Banks a detailed report, in a form to be prescribed by the Commissioner of Banks, of his acts and proposed final distribution, and dissolution.

(2) Upon the Commissioner of Banks' approval of the final report of the receiver, the receiver shall provide such notice and thereafter shall make such final distribution, in such manner as the Commissioner of Banks may direct.

(3) When a final distribution has been made except as to any unclaimed funds, the receiver shall deposit such unclaimed funds with the Commissioner of Banks and shall deliver to the Commissioner of Banks all books and records of the dissolved association.

(4) Upon completion of the foregoing procedure, and upon the joint petition of the Commissioner of Banks and receiver to the superior court, the court may find that the association should be dissolved, and following such publication of notice of dissolution as the court may direct, the court may enter a decree of final resolution and the association shall thereby be dissolved.

(5) Upon final dissolution of the association in receivership or at such time as the receiver shall be otherwise relieved of his duties, the Commissioner of Banks shall cause an audit to be conducted, during which the receiver shall be available to assist in such. The accounts of the receiver shall then be ruled upon by the Commissioner of Banks and Commission and if approved, the receiver shall thereupon be given a final and complete discharge and release. (1981, c. 282, s. 3; 1987, c. 237, s. 4; 2001-193, s. 16.)