§ 41-11.1. Sale, lease or mortgage of property held by a "class," where membership may be increased by persons not in esse.
(a) Wherever there is a gift, devise, transfer or conveyance of a vested estate or interest in real or personal property, or both, to persons described as a class, and at the effective date thereof, one or more members of the class are in esse, and there is a possibility in law that the membership of the class may later be increased by one or more members not then in esse, a special proceeding may be instituted in the superior court for the sale, lease or mortgage of such real or personal property, or both, as provided in this section.
(b) All petitions filed under this section wherein an order is sought for the sale, lease or mortgage of real property, or of both real and personal property, shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the superior court of the county in which all or any part of the real property is situated. If the order sought is for sale, lease or mortgage of personal property, the petition may be filed in the office of the clerk of the superior court of the county in which any or all of such personal estate is situated.
(c) All members of the class in esse shall be parties to the proceeding, and where any of such members are under legal disability, their duly appointed general guardians or their guardians ad litem shall be made parties. The clerk of the superior court shall appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the interests of the possible members of the class not in esse, and such guardian ad litem shall be a party to the proceeding.
(d) Upon a finding by the clerk of the superior court that the interests of all members of the class, both those in esse and those not in esse, would be materially promoted by a sale, lease or mortgage of any such property, he shall enter an order that the sale, lease or mortgage be made, and shall appoint a trustee to make such sale, lease or mortgage, in such manner and on such terms as the clerk may find to be most advantageous to the interests of the members of the class, both those in esse and those not in esse; but no sale, lease or mortgage shall be made, or shall be valid, until approved and confirmed by the resident judge of the district, or the judge holding the courts of the district. As a condition precedent to receiving the proceeds of the sale, lease or mortgage, the trustee shall be bonded in the same manner as a guardian for minors.
(e) In the event of a sale of any such property, the proceeds of sale shall be owned in the identical manner as the property was owned immediately prior to the sale; provided,
(1) The trustee appointed by the clerk as provided above may hold, manage, invest and reinvest said proceeds for the benefit of all members of the class, both those in esse and those not in esse, until the occurrence of the event which will finally determine the identity of all members of the class; all such investments and reinvestments shall be made in accordance with the laws of North Carolina relating to the investment of funds held by guardians or minors; and all the provisions of G.S. 36-4, relating to the reduction in bonds of guardians or trustees upon investment in certain registered securities and the deposit of the securities with the clerk of the superior court, shall be applicable to the trustee appointed hereunder;
(2) The clerk by appropriate order, in lieu of holding, managing, investing and reinvesting the proceeds of sale, may pay or authorize the trustee to pay the entire amount of such proceeds to the living members of the class as they may be then constituted or to their duly appointed guardians, or to pay the ratable portion or portions of such proceeds to one or more of such living members or to their guardians; provided that, where the class would be closed by the death of the mother or mothers of the members of the class, said mother or mothers are living and have attained the age of 55, and upon the further condition that there be first filed with the clerk a bond conditioned upon the payment of the lawful share of any member of the class not then in esse, but who may thereafter come into being or otherwise become a member of the class, to such member or his guardian whenever he becomes a living member of the class. Such bond shall be payable to the State to the use of the additional members of the class and shall be either a cash bond or a premium bond executed by a surety company authorized to transact business in North Carolina. The penalty of such bond shall not be less than one and one fourth the amount of the proceeds of sale. Any bond filed hereunder shall be acknowledged before and approved by the clerk of the superior court.
(f) In the event the proceeds of sale shall be paid over to a trustee and invested by him as authorized above, the entire income actually received by the trustee from such investment shall be paid by said trustee periodically, and not less often than annually, in equal shares to the living members of the class as they shall be constituted at the time of each such payment, or to the duly appointed guardians of any such living members under legal disability.
(g) In the event the court orders a lease of the property, the proceeds from the lease shall be first used to defray the expenses, if any, of the upkeep and maintenance of the property, and the discharge of taxes, liens, charges and encumbrances thereon, and any remaining proceeds shall be paid over by the trustee in their entirety, not less often than annually, in equal shares to the living members of the class as they shall be constituted at the time of each such payment or to the duly appointed guardians of any such members under legal disability.
(h) Payments of income to the living members of the class as aforesaid shall constitute a full and final acquittance and disposition of the income so paid, it being the intent of this section that only the living members of the class (as they may be constituted at the time of each respective income payment) shall be entitled to the income which is the subject of the respective payment, and that possible members of the class not in esse shall not share in, or become entitled to the benefit of any income payment made prior to the time that such members are born and become living members of the class.
(i) In the event that there has been a sale of any of the property, and the proceeds of sale are being held, managed, invested and reinvested by a trustee as provided above, any member of the class who is of legal age and who is not otherwise under legal disability may sell, assign and transfer his entire right, title and interest (both as to principal and income) in the funds or investments so held by the trustee. Upon receiving written notice of such sale, assignment or transfer, the trustee shall recognize the purchaser, assignee and transferee as the lawful successor in all respects whatsoever to the right, title and interest (both as to principal and income) of the seller, assignor and transferor; but no such sale, transfer or assignment shall divest the trustee of his legal title in, or possession of, said funds or investments or (except as provided above) affect his administration of the trusts for which he was appointed.
(j) The court shall order a mortgage of the property only for one or more of the following purposes:
(1) To provide funds for the costs and expenses of court incurred in carrying out any of the provisions of this section;
(2) To provide funds for the necessary upkeep and maintenance of the property;
(3) To make reasonable improvements to the property;
(4) To pay off taxes, other existing liens, charges and encumbrances on the property.
(k) The mortgagee shall not be held responsible for the application of the funds secured or derived from the mortgage. As used in this section, references to mortgages shall also apply to deeds of trust executed for loan security purposes.
(l) Every trustee appointed pursuant to the provisions of this section shall file with the clerk of the superior court an inventory and annual accounts in the same manner as is now provided by law with respect to guardians.
(m) The superior court shall allow commissions to the trustee for his time and trouble in the effectuation of a sale, lease or mortgage, and in the investment and management of the proceeds, in the same manner and under the same rules and restrictions as allowances are made to executors, administrators, and collectors.
(n) Provided, however, this section shall not be applicable where the instrument creating the gift, devise, transfer or conveyance specifically directs, by means of the creation of a trust or otherwise, the manner in which the property shall be used or disposed of, or contains specific limitations, conditions or restrictions as to the use, form, investment, leasing, mortgage, or other disposition of the property.
(o) And provided further, this section shall not alter or affect in any way laws or legal principles heretofore, now, or hereafter existing relating to the determination of the nature, extent or vesting of estates or property interests, and of the persons entitled thereto. But where, under the laws and legal principles existing without regard to this section, a gift, devise, transfer or conveyance has the legal effect of being made to all members of a class, some of whom are in esse and some of whom are in posse, the procedures authorized hereby may be utilized for the purpose of promoting the best interests of all members of the class, and this section shall be liberally construed to effectuate this intent. The remedies and procedures herein specified shall not be exclusive, but shall be cumulative, in addition to, and without prejudice to, all other remedies and procedures, if any, which now exist or hereafter may exist either by virtue of statute, or by virtue of the inherent powers of any court of competent jurisdiction, or otherwise.
(p) The provisions of this section shall apply to gifts, devises, transfers, and conveyances made both before and after April 5, 1949. (1949, c. 811, s. 1; 1971, c. 641, s. 1; 1997-456, s. 27; 2011-284, s. 50(a)-(d).)