Article 5.

Powers of Banks.

53C-5-1. Powers.

(a) Except as otherwise specifically provided by this Chapter, a bank shall have the powers conferred upon business corporations organized under the laws of this State. In addition, and not by way of limitation, a bank shall have the power to do the following:

(1) Carry on the business of banking, which includes such activities as discounting and negotiating promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange, and other evidences of indebtedness; receiving deposits; issuing, advising, and confirming letters of credit; receiving money for transmission; and loaning money on personal security or on real or personal property.

(2) Make any loan that could be made by a federally chartered institution doing business in this State.

(3) Purchase or invest in loans, or a participating interest in loans, of a type that the bank could itself make.

(4) Sell any loan, including one or more participating interests in a loan.

(5) Make any investments authorized by G.S. 53C-5-2 or any other section of this Chapter.

(6) Through information technology systems, processes, and capabilities, provide, deliver, or otherwise make available banking services and products, enhance the effectiveness or efficiency of its operations, and provide other benefits to its customers. Additionally, a bank may utilize its information technology systems, processes, capabilities, and capacities in the same manner and to the same extent as is permitted for national banks.

(7) Engage in any other activities approved by rule, order, or interpretation of the Commissioner.

(b) A bank shall also have the power to engage in any of the following activities:

(1) As principal in any activity permissible for a national bank under any law, including the National Bank Act, 12 U.S.C. 24, as well as any activity recognized as permissible for a national bank in any regulation, order, or written interpretation issued by the OCC.

(2) As principal in any activity that is permissible or determined by the FDIC to be permissible for a bank under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1831a, or in any regulation, order, or written interpretation thereunder.

(3) As principal in any activity that is permissible for a savings institution organized under Chapters 54B or 54C of the General Statutes, or that is permissible for a federal savings association under the Home Owners' Loan Act of 1933, 12 U.S.C. 1464, or in any regulation, order, or written interpretation thereunder.

(4) In any activity other than as principal.

(c) In addition to the other powers described in this section, a bank shall have the power to exercise all other powers that are reasonably necessary or incident to the exercise of the powers authorized in subsections (a) and (b) of this section.

(d) Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, a bank that proposes to engage in any new activity shall apply to the Commissioner for approval to engage in the activity before its commencement. If the new activity will be conducted in a new or existing subsidiary in which the bank intends to make an investment, the bank shall apply to the Commissioner for approval to engage in the new activity before entering into the investment. The bank shall not engage in the new activity or make the investment unless and until the Commissioner issues a written approval of the application. An application for approval shall contain a description of the proposed activity and any other information required by the Commissioner. A copy of any notice or application the bank is required to file with any bank supervisory agency with respect to the proposed activity shall also be provided to the Commissioner. For the purpose of this section, a "new activity" is any business activity in which the bank is not currently engaged. The extension or relocation of an existing activity into a new department, division, or subsidiary of the bank shall not be considered a new activity. A bank may appeal a denial of an application by the Commissioner pursuant to G.S. 53C-2-6.

(e) No application for approval to engage in a new activity shall be required, provided all of the following conditions are met as of the date the activity is commenced:

(1) The new activity is one described in subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section.

(2) The bank is well-capitalized and well-managed as demonstrated by the supervisory rating it received during its most recent safety and soundness examination.

(3) No notice or application to engage in the new activity is required to be filed by the bank with any federal banking regulator.

(f) A bank permitted to commence a new activity without prior application and approval pursuant to subsection (e) of this section shall notify the Commissioner in writing of the commencement of the new activity no later than the 30th day after the earlier of (i) commencing the new activity or (ii) if applicable, making an investment in a subsidiary through which the new activity will be conducted. (2012-56, s. 4; 2013-29, s. 7; 2017-165, s. 5.)

 

53C-5-2. Investment authority.

(a) In addition to any powers or investments authorized by any other section of this Chapter, a bank may invest in the following:

(1) The shares or other securities of the following:

a. Any other depository institution.

b. Any industrial bank, bankers' bank, or other deposit-taking entity chartered or existing under any federal or State law, including the shares or other securities of clearing corporations defined in G.S. 25-8-102, the shares or other securities of central reserve banks, and the shares of an Edge Act bank. The investment of any bank in the shares of a central reserve bank or bank organized under the Edge Act, 12 U.S.C. 611, et seq., shall at no time exceed ten percent (10%) of the required capital of the bank making the investment.

c. Any company in which a federally chartered institution is authorized to invest under any statute or any regulation, official circular, bulletin, order, or written interpretation issued by the OCC.

(2) Bonds or notes issued by or fully and unconditionally guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States Treasury. No bank shall be required to maintain a reserve against deposits secured by United States Treasury bonds or notes equal in market value to the amount of such deposits, and such bonds or notes shall be valid security for all loans and deposits to the same extent as are any obligations of the United States.

(3) Federal farm loan bonds, notes, or similar obligations issued by a farm credit system institution.

(4) Securities issued by federal home loan banks pursuant to the Federal Home Loan Bank Act of 1932, as amended.

(5) Bonds or notes secured by a mortgage or deed of trust insured or guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or the Veterans Administration, or in mortgages or deeds of trust on real estate that have been accepted for insurance or guarantee by the Federal Housing Administration, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or Veterans Administration, or in obligations of a national mortgage association, which obligations are insured or guaranteed by the United States government. No law of this State prescribing the nature, amount, or form of security or requiring security upon which loans or investments may be made, or prescribing the rates or time of payment of the interest any obligation may bear, or prescribing the period for which loans or investments may be made, shall apply to investments made pursuant to this subsection.

(6) Mutual funds, but subject to rules or orders adopted by the Commissioner.

(b) A bank may make an investment in a subsidiary that will be operated as any of the following:

(1) Bank operating subsidiary.

(2) Financial subsidiary.

(3) DPC subsidiary, as defined by G.S. 53C-1-4(30).

(c) No investment shall be made by a bank or a subsidiary pursuant to subsection (b) or (d) of this section unless the following apply:

(1) The investment is approved by the board of directors of the bank or a board-authorized committee.

(2) The bank has carefully investigated the business or activity in which the subsidiary established by the investment will engage.

(3) The bank has established the risk management and financial controls necessary to engage in the business or activity in a safe and sound manner.

(4) The bank has, and following the making of the investment and the application of the provisions of this subsection, will continue to satisfy the capital requirements of this Chapter.

(d) A subsidiary may invest in a lower-tier subsidiary, subject to the same requirements and limitations applicable to a bank's investment in a subsidiary.

(e) Except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, a bank or subsidiary proposing to make an investment described in subsection (b) or (d) of this section shall give prior written notice to the Commissioner, providing such detail as the Commissioner may require. Unless the Commissioner, within 30 days following receipt of the notice, notifies the bank or subsidiary that the Commissioner objects to the proposed investment, the bank or subsidiary may complete the investment. However, the Commissioner may extend the period within which to object to the proposed investment if the Commissioner determines that it raises issues that require additional information or additional time for analysis. While the objection period is so extended, the bank or subsidiary may not proceed with respect to the proposed investment. A bank may appeal an objection by the Commissioner pursuant to G.S. 53C-2-6.

(f) The prior notice requirement provided by subsection (e) of this section shall not apply if all of the following apply:

(1) The bank is well-capitalized and well-managed as demonstrated by the supervisory rating it received during its most recent examination.

(2) Each activity of the subsidiary in which the investment is to be made is either of the following:

a. One in which the bank is then engaged or has previously been engaged, directly or through a different subsidiary, and for which all necessary approvals of bank supervisory agencies and of the Commissioner have previously been obtained and remain in effect.

b. One for which no prior notice or application for approval to any federal bank supervisory authority is required.

(3) A bank that makes an investment pursuant to the exception created by this subsection shall nevertheless notify the Commissioner in writing of the investment within 30 days thereafter.

(g) Any bank, out-of-state bank, national bank, or any subsidiary thereof that engages in an activity subject to licensure and/or regulation under the laws of this State, other than this Chapter, shall be subject to licensure and/or regulation on a basis that does not arbitrarily discriminate by the appropriate regulatory agency which licenses and/or regulates nonbanks that engage in the same activity.

(h) The Commissioner shall monitor the impact of investment activities of banks and their subsidiaries under this section on the safety and soundness of such banks. Any securities owned or hereafter acquired in excess of the limitations herein imposed shall be disposed of at public or private sale within six months after the date of acquiring the securities and, if not so disposed of, they shall be charged to profit and loss account and no longer carried on the books as an asset. The limit of time in which securities shall be disposed of or charged off the books of the bank may be extended by the Commissioner if in the Commissioner's judgment it is for the best interest of the bank that the extension be granted, provided that the limitations imposed in this section on the ownership of shares or other equity ownership interest in companies are suspended only to the extent that any bank operating under the supervision of the Commissioner may subscribe for and purchase shares and other equity ownership interests in, or debentures, bonds, or other types of securities of, any company organized under the laws of the United States for the purposes of insuring the depositors a part or all of their funds on deposit in banks to the extent as security ownership is required in order to obtain the benefits of deposit insurance for such depositors.

(i) A bank may purchase, hold, and convey real estate other than bank premises for the following purposes:

(1) As security for extensions of credit made or moneys due to it when that real estate has been mortgaged to it in good faith.

(2) When the real estate has been purchased at sales upon foreclosures of mortgages and deeds of trust held or owned by it, or on judgments or decrees obtained and rendered for debts due to it, or through deeds in lieu of foreclosure or other settlements affecting security of those debts. All real property acquired under this subdivision shall be sold by the bank within five years after it is acquired unless, upon application by the bank, the Commissioner extends the time within which the sale shall be made.

(j) A bank's investment in any bonds or other debt obligations of any one person, other than obligations of the United States government or an agency thereof, or other obligations guaranteed by the United States, this State, another state, or other political subdivision of this State or another state, shall at no time exceed ten percent (10%) of the sum of (i) the bank's "capital," as that term is defined in G.S. 53C-1-4, plus (ii) those portions of the bank's allowance for loan and lease losses, deferred tax assets, and intangible assets that are excluded from the bank's capital under 12 C.F.R. Part 325. (2012-56, s. 4; 2013-29, s. 8.)

 

53C-5-3. Banks, fiduciaries authorized to invest in securities approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Federal Housing Administration, Veterans Administration.

(a) Insured Mortgages and Obligation of National Mortgage Associations and Federal Home Loan Banks. - It shall be lawful for all commercial and industrial banks, trust companies, building and loan associations, savings and loan associations, insurance companies, mortgagees and loan correspondents approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or Federal Housing Administration, and other financial institutions engaged in business in this State, and for guardians, executors, administrators, trustees, or others acting in a fiduciary capacity in this State to invest, to the same extent that such funds may be invested in interest-bearing obligations of the United States, their funds or moneys in their custody or possession that are eligible for investment, in bonds or notes secured by a mortgage or deed of trust insured or guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or the Veterans Administration, or in mortgages or deeds of trust on real estate which have been accepted for insurance or guarantee by the Federal Housing Administration, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or Veterans Administration, and in obligations of a national mortgage association, which obligations are insured or guaranteed by the United States Government, or bonds, debentures, consolidated bonds, or other obligations of any federal home loan bank or banks.

(b) Insured or Guaranteed Loans; Loans Purchased by National Mortgage Associations and Federal Home Loan Banks. - All such banks, trust companies, building and loan associations, savings and loan associations, insurance companies, mortgagees and loan correspondents approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or Federal Housing Administration, and other financial institutions, and also all such guardians, executors, administrators, trustees, or others acting in a fiduciary capacity in this State, may make such loans, secured by real estate, as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the Federal Housing Administration, a national mortgage association, or the Veterans Administration has insured or guaranteed, or has made a commitment to insure or guarantee, and may obtain such insurance or guarantee; provided, further, that the above designated financial institutions may make loans, secured by real estate, that are eligible and committed for sale to a national mortgage association, federal home loan bank, federal home loan mortgage corporation, or other agency or instrumentality of the United States.

(c) Eligibility for Credit Insurance. - All banks, trust companies, building and loan associations, savings and loan associations, insurance companies, mortgagees and loan correspondents approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or Federal Housing Administration, and other financial institutions, on being approved as eligible for credit insurance by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the Federal Housing Administration, or the Veterans Administration, may make such loans as are insured by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or Federal Housing Administration or insured or guaranteed by the Veterans Administration.

(d) Certain Securities Made Eligible for Collaterals. - Whenever by statute of this State collateral is required as security for the deposit of public or other funds; or deposits are required to be made with any public official or department; or an investment of capital or surplus, or a reserve or other fund is required to be maintained, consisting of designated securities, bonds, and notes secured by a mortgage or deed of trust insured or guaranteed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Federal Housing Administration, or Veterans Administration, debentures issued by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Federal Housing Administration and obligations of a national mortgage association shall be eligible for such purposes.

(e) General Laws Not Applicable. - No law of this State prescribing the nature, amount, or form of security or requiring security upon which loans or investments may be made, or prescribing or limiting the rates or time of payment of the interest any obligation may bear, or prescribing or limiting the period for which loans or investments may be made, shall be deemed to apply to loans or investments made pursuant to the foregoing paragraphs. (2012-56, s. 4.)