North Carolina Condominium Act.
§ 47C-1-101. Short title.
This chapter shall be known and may be cited as the North Carolina Condominium Act. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1.)
(a) This Chapter applies to all condominiums created within this State after October 1, 1986. In addition, the following sections apply to all condominiums created in this State on or before October 1, 1986, notwithstanding any conflicting provisions in the articles of incorporation, the declaration, or the bylaws and notwithstanding any references in those documents to Chapter 47A of the General Statutes: G.S. 47C-1-105 (Separate Titles and Taxation), 47C-1-106 (Applicability of Local Ordinances, Regulations, and Building Codes), 47C-1-107 (Eminent Domain), 47C-2-103 (Construction and Validity of Declaration and Bylaws), 47C-2-104 (Description of Units), 47C-2-121 (Merger or Consolidation of Condominiums), 47C-3-102(a)(1) through (6) and (11) through (16)(Powers of Unit Owners' Association), 47C-3-103 (Executive board members and officers), 47C-3-107.1 (Procedures for fines and suspension of condominium privileges or services), 47C-3-108 (Meetings), 47C-3-111 (Tort and Contract Liability), 47C-3-112 (Conveyance or Encumbrance of Common Elements), 47C-3-116 (Lien for Assessments), 47C-3-118 (Association Records), 47C-3-121 (American and State flags and political sign displays), and 47C-4-117 (Effect of Violation on Rights of Action; Attorney's Fees). These sections apply only with respect to events and circumstances occurring after October 1, 1986. G.S. 47C-1-103 (Definitions) also applies to all condominiums created in this State on or before October 1, 1986, to the extent necessary in construing any of the sections referenced in this subsection.
(b) The provisions of Chapter 47A, the Unit Ownership Act, do not apply to condominiums created after October 1, 1986 and do not invalidate any amendment to the declaration, bylaws, and plats and plans of any condominium created on or before October 1, 1986 if the amendment would be permitted by this chapter. The amendment must be adopted in conformity with the procedures and requirements specified by those instruments and by Chapter 47A, the Unit Ownership Act. If the amendment grants to any person any rights, powers, or privileges permitted by this chapter, all correlative obligations, liabilities, and restrictions in this chapter also apply to that person.
(c) This chapter does not apply to condominiums or units located outside this State, but the public offering statement provisions (G.S. 47C-4-102 through 47C-4-108) apply to all contracts for the dispositions thereof signed in this State by any party unless exempt under G.S. 47C-4-101(b). (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1; 1995, c. 509, s. 135.1(h); 2002-112, s. 1; 2004-109, s. 1; 2005-422, s. 19; 2022-12, s. 3(a).)
§ 47C-1-103. Definitions.
In the declaration and bylaws, unless specifically provided otherwise or the context otherwise requires, and in this chapter:
(1) "Affiliate of a declarant" means any person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with a declarant. A person "controls" a declarant if the person (i) is a general partner, officer, director, or employer of the declarant, (ii) directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more other persons, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more than twenty percent (20%) of the voting interests in the declarant, (iii) controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of the declarant, or (iv) has contributed more than twenty percent (20%) of the capital of the declarant. A person "is controlled by" a declarant if the declarant (i) is a general partner, officer, director, or employer of the person, (ii) directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more other persons, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more than twenty percent (20%) of the voting interests in the person, (iii) controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of the person, or (iv) has contributed more than twenty percent (20%) of the capital of the person. Control does not exist if the powers described in this paragraph are held solely as security for an obligation and are not exercised.
(2) "Allocated interests" means the undivided interests in the common elements, the common expense liability, and votes in the association allocated to each unit.
(3) "Association" or "unit owners' associations" means the unit owners' associations organized under G.S. 47C-3-101.
(4) "Common elements" means all portions of a condominium other than the units.
(5) "Common expenses" means expenditures made by or financial liabilities of the association, together with any allocations to reserves.
(6) "Common expense liability" means the liability for common expenses allocated to each unit pursuant to G.S. 47C-2-107.
(7) "Condominium" means real estate, portions of which are designated for separate ownership and the remainder of which is designated for common ownership solely by the owners of those portions. Real estate is not a condominium unless the undivided interests in the common elements are vested in the unit owners.
(8) "Conversion building" means a building that at any time before creation of the condominium was occupied wholly or partially by persons other than purchasers or by persons who occupy with the consent of purchasers.
(9) "Declarant" means any person or group of persons acting in concert who (i) as part of a common promotional plan offers to dispose of his or its interest in a unit not previously disposed of or (ii) reserves or succeeds to any special declarant right.
(10) "Declaration" means any instruments, however denominated, which create a condominium, and any amendments to those instruments.
(11) "Development rights" means any right or combination of rights reserved by a declarant in the declaration to add real estate to a condominium; to create units, common elements, or limited common elements within a condominium; to subdivide units or convert units into common elements; or to withdraw real estate from a condominium.
(12) "Dispose" or "disposition" means a voluntary transfer to a purchaser of any legal or equitable interest in a unit, but does not include the transfer or release of a security interest.
(13) "Executive board" means the body, regardless of name, designated in the declaration to act on behalf of the association.
(14) "Identifying number" means a symbol or address that identifies only one unit in a condominium.
(15) "Leasehold condominium" means a condominium in which all or a portion of the real estate is subject to a lease the expiration or termination of which will terminate the condominium or reduce its size.
(16) "Limited common element" means a portion of the common elements allocated by the declaration or by operation of G.S. 47C-2-102(2) or (4) for the exclusive use of one or more but fewer than all of the units.
(17) "Master association" means an organization described in G.S. 47C-2-120, whether or not it is also an association described in G.S. 47C-3-101.
(18) "Offering" means any advertisement, inducement, solicitation, or attempt to encourage any person to acquire any interest in a unit, other than as security for an obligation. An advertisement in a newspaper or other periodical of general circulation, or in any broadcast medium to the general public, of a condominium not located in this State, is not an offering if the advertisement states that an offering may be made only in compliance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the condominium is located.
(19) "Person" means a natural person, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision or agency, or other legal or commercial entity.
(20) "Purchaser" means any person, other than a declarant or a person in the business of selling real estate for his own account, who by means of a voluntary transfer acquires a legal or equitable interest in a unit other than (i) a leasehold interest (including renewal options) of less than five years, or (ii) as security for an obligation.
(21) "Real estate" means any leasehold or other estate or interest in, over, or under land, including structures, fixtures, and other improvements and interests which by custom, usage, or law, pass with a conveyance of land though not described in the contract of sale or instrument of conveyance. "Real estate" includes parcels, with or without upper or lower boundaries, and spaces that may be filled with air or water.
(22) "Residential purposes" means use for dwelling or recreational purposes, or both.
(23) "Special declarant rights" means rights reserved for the benefit of a declarant to complete improvements indicated on plats and plans filed with the declaration (G.S. 47C-2-109); to exercise any development right (G.S. 47C-2-110); to maintain sales offices, management offices, signs advertising the condominium, and models (G.S. 47C-2-115); to use easements through the common elements for the purpose of making improvements within the condominium or within real estate which may be added to the condominium (G.S. 47C-2-116); to make the condominium part of a larger condominium (G.S. 47C-2-121); or to appoint or remove any officer of the association or any executive board member during any period of declarant control (G.S. 47C-3-103(d)).
(24) "Time share" means a "timeshare" as defined in G.S. 93A-41(34).
(25) "Unit" means a physical portion of the condominium designated for separate ownership or occupancy, the boundaries of which are described pursuant to (G.S. 47C-2-105(a)(5).
(26) "Unit owner" means a declarant or other person who owns a unit, or a lessee of a unit in a leasehold condominium whose lease expires simultaneously with any lease the expiration or termination of which will remove the unit from the condominium, but does not include a person having an interest in a unit solely as security for an obligation.
(27) "Lessee" means the party entitled to present possession of a leased unit whether lessee, sublessee or assignee. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1; 2021-163, s. 2(a).)
§ 47C-1-104. Variation; power of attorney or proxy to declarant.
(a) Except as specifically provided in specific sections of this chapter, the provisions of this chapter may not be varied by the declaration or bylaws.
(b) The provisions of this chapter may not be varied by agreement; however, after breach of a provision of this chapter, rights created hereunder may be knowingly waived in writing.
(c) If a declarant, in good faith, has attempted to comply with the requirements of this chapter and has substantially complied with the chapter, nonmaterial errors or omissions shall not be actionable.
(d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a declarant may not act under a power of attorney or proxy or use any other device to evade the limitations or prohibitions of this chapter, the declaration, or the bylaws. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1.)
§ 47C-1-105. Separate titles and taxation.
(a) If there is any unit owner other than a declarant, each unit that has been created, together with its interest in the common elements, constitutes for all purposes a separate parcel of real estate.
(b) If there is any unit owner other than a declarant, each unit must be separately taxed and assessed, and no separate tax or assessment may be rendered against any common elements for which a declarant has reserved no developmental rights.
(c) Any portion of the common elements for which the declarant has reserved any developmental right must be separately taxed and assessed against the declarant, and the declarant alone is liable for payment of those taxes.
(d) If there is no unit owner other than a declarant, the real estate comprising the condominium may be taxed and assessed in any manner provided by law.
(e) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, extraterritorial common property taxed pursuant to G.S. 105-277.8 shall be assessed, pro rata, among the unit owners based on the number of the units in the association. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1; 2012-157, s. 2.)
§ 47C-1-106. Applicability of local ordinances, regulations, and building codes.
A zoning, subdivision, or building code or other real estate use law, ordinance, or regulation may not prohibit the condominium form of ownership or impose any requirement upon a condominium which it would not impose upon a substantially similar development under a different form of ownership. Otherwise, no provision of this chapter invalidates or modifies any provision of any zoning, subdivision, or building code or other real estate use law, ordinance, or regulation. No local ordinance or regulation may require the recordation of a declaration prior to the date required by this chapter. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1.)
§ 47C-1-107. Eminent domain.
(a) If a unit is acquired by eminent domain, or if part of a unit is acquired by eminent domain leaving the unit owner with a remnant which may not practically or lawfully be used for any purpose permitted by the declaration, the award must compensate the unit owner for his unit and its interest in the common elements, whether or not any common elements are acquired. Unless the condemnor acquires the right to use the unit's interest in common elements, that unit's allocated interests are automatically reallocated to the remaining units in proportion to the respective allocated interests of those units before the taking exclusive of the unit taken, and the association shall promptly prepare, execute, and record an amendment to the declaration reflecting the reallocations. Any remnant of a unit remaining after part of a unit is taken under this subsection is thereafter a common element.
(b) Except as provided in subsection (a), if part of a unit is acquired by eminent domain, the award must compensate the unit owner for the reduction in value of the unit and of its interest in the common elements, whether or not any common elements are acquired. Upon acquisition, unless the decree otherwise provides, (1) that unit's allocated interests are reduced in proportion to the reduction in the size of the unit, or on any other basis specified in the declaration, and (2) the portion of the allocated interests divested from the partially acquired unit is automatically reallocated to that unit and the remaining units in proportion to the respective allocated interests of those units before the taking, with the partially acquired unit participating in the reallocation on the basis of its reduced allocated interests.
(c) If part of the common elements is acquired by eminent domain, the portion of the award not payable to unit owners under subsection (a) must be paid to the association. Unless the declaration provides otherwise, any portion of the award attributable to the acquisition of a limited common element must be apportioned among the owners of the units to which that limited common element was allocated at the time of acquisition.
(d) The court decree shall be recorded in every county in which any portion of the condominium is located. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1.)
§ 47C-1-108. Supplemental general principles of law applicable.
The principles of law and equity supplement the provisions of this chapter, except to the extent inconsistent with this chapter. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1.)
§ 47C-1-109. Inconsistent time share provisions.
The provisions of this Chapter shall apply, so far as appropriate, to every time share program or project created within this State after October 1, 1986, except to the extent that specific statutory provisions in Chapter 93A are inconsistent with this Chapter, in which case the provisions of Chapter 93A shall prevail. (1985 (Reg. Sess., 1986), c. 877, s. 1.)
§ 47C-1-110. Substantial compliance and marketability.
In all instances where a declarant intended to establish on the declarant's property a condominium pursuant to this chapter, as established by the recording of a declaration, plats and plans, and by the subsequent recording of a deed or deeds intending to convey any unit or units, but failed to substantially comply with this chapter due to defects in the drafting, execution, or recording of the declaration, plats or plans, title to any unit that has been constructed and so deeded by the declarant for at least four calendar years without legal challenge shall be deemed to be marketable notwithstanding such defects. (2020-52, s. 6.)