Minimum Housing Codes.
§ 160D-1201. Authorization.
(a) Dwellings. - The existence and occupation of dwellings that are unfit for human habitation are inimical to the welfare and dangerous and injurious to the health and safety of the people of this State. A public necessity exists for the repair, closing, or demolition of such dwellings. Whenever any local government finds that there exists in the planning and development regulation jurisdiction dwellings that are unfit for human habitation due to dilapidation; defects increasing the hazards of fire, accidents or other calamities; lack of ventilation, light, or sanitary facilities; or other conditions rendering the dwellings unsafe or unsanitary, or dangerous or detrimental to the health, safety, morals, or otherwise inimical to the welfare of the residents of the local government, power is conferred upon the local government to exercise its police powers to repair, close, or demolish the dwellings consistent with the provisions of this Article.
(b) Abandoned Structures. - Any local government may by ordinance provide for the repair, closing, or demolition of any abandoned structure that the governing board finds to be a health or safety hazard as a result of the attraction of insects or rodents, conditions creating a fire hazard, dangerous conditions constituting a threat to children, or frequent use by vagrants as living quarters in the absence of sanitary facilities. The ordinance may provide for the repair, closing, or demolition of such structure pursuant to the same provisions and procedures as are prescribed by this Article for the repair, closing, or demolition of dwellings found to be unfit for human habitation. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, ss. 39, 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1202. Definitions.
The following definitions apply in this Article:
(1) Owner. - The holder of the title in fee simple and every mortgagee of record.
(2) Parties in interest. - All individuals, associations, and corporations that have interests of record in a dwelling and any that are in possession of a dwelling.
(3) Public authority. - Any housing authority or any officer that is in charge of any department or branch of the government of the city, county, or State relating to health, fire, building regulations, or other activities concerning dwellings in the local government.
(4) Public officer. - The officer authorized by ordinances adopted under this Article to exercise the powers prescribed by the ordinances and by this Article. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, s. 51(a), (b), (d); 2021-88, s. 1(h).)
§ 160D-1203. Ordinance authorized as to repair, closing, and demolition; order of public officer.
Upon the adoption of an ordinance finding that dwelling conditions of the character described in G.S. 160D-1201 exist, the governing board is authorized to adopt and enforce ordinances relating to dwellings within the planning and development regulation jurisdiction that are unfit for human habitation. These ordinances shall include the following provisions:
(1) Designation of enforcement officer. - One or more public officers shall be designated to exercise the powers prescribed by the ordinance.
(2) Investigation, complaint, hearing. - Whenever a petition is filed with the public officer by a public authority or by at least five residents of the jurisdiction charging that any dwelling is unfit for human habitation or when it appears to the public officer that any dwelling is unfit for human habitation, the public officer shall, if a preliminary investigation discloses a basis for such charges, issue and cause to be served upon the owner of and parties in interest in such dwellings a complaint stating the charges in that respect and containing a notice that an administrative hearing will be held before the public officer, or the officer's designated agent, at a place within the county in which the property is located. The hearing shall be not less than 10 days nor more than 30 days after the serving of the complaint. The owner and parties in interest shall be given the right to file an answer to the complaint and to appear in person, or otherwise, and give testimony at the place and time fixed in the complaint. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law shall not be controlling in administrative hearings before the public officer.
(3) Orders. - If, after notice and an administrative hearing, the public officer determines that the dwelling under consideration is unfit for human habitation, the officer shall state in writing findings of fact in support of that determination and shall issue and cause to be served upon the owner one of the following orders, as appropriate:
a. If the repair, alteration, or improvement of the dwelling can be made at a reasonable cost in relation to the value of the dwelling, requiring the owner, within the time specified, to repair, alter, or improve the dwelling in order to render it fit for human habitation. The ordinance may fix a certain percentage of this value as being reasonable. The order may require that the property be vacated and closed only if continued occupancy during the time allowed for repair will present a significant threat of bodily harm, taking into account the nature of the necessary repairs, alterations, or improvements; the current state of the property; and any additional risks due to the presence and capacity of minors under the age of 18 or occupants with physical or mental disabilities. The order shall state that the failure to make timely repairs as directed in the order shall make the dwelling subject to the issuance of an unfit order under subdivision (4) of this section.
b. If the repair, alteration, or improvement of the dwelling cannot be made at a reasonable cost in relation to the value of the dwelling, requiring the owner, within the time specified in the order, to remove or demolish the dwelling. The ordinance may fix a certain percentage of this value as being reasonable. However, notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the dwelling is located in a historic district and the Historic District Commission determines, after an administrative hearing as provided by ordinance, that the dwelling is of particular significance or value toward maintaining the character of the district, and the dwelling has not been condemned as unsafe, the order may require that the dwelling be vacated and closed consistent with G.S. 160D-949.
(4) Repair, closing, and posting. - If the owner fails to comply with an order to repair, alter, or improve or to vacate and close the dwelling, the public officer may cause the dwelling to be repaired, altered, or improved or to be vacated and closed, and the public officer may cause to be posted on the main entrance of any dwelling so closed a placard with the following words: "This building is unfit for human habitation; the use or occupation of this building for human habitation is prohibited and unlawful." Occupation of a building so posted shall constitute a Class 1 misdemeanor. The duties of the public officer set forth in this subdivision shall not be exercised until the governing board shall have by ordinance ordered the public officer to proceed to effectuate the purpose of this Article with respect to the particular property or properties that the public officer shall have found to be unfit for human habitation and which property or properties shall be described in the ordinance. This ordinance shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds in the county where the property or properties are located and shall be indexed in the name of the property owner in the grantor index.
(5) Demolition. - If the owner fails to comply with an order to remove or demolish the dwelling, the public officer may cause such dwelling to be removed or demolished. The duties of the public officer set forth in this subdivision shall not be exercised until the governing board shall have by ordinance ordered the public officer to proceed to effectuate the purpose of this Article with respect to the particular property or properties that the public officer shall have found to be unfit for human habitation and which property or properties shall be described in the ordinance. No such ordinance shall be adopted to require demolition of a dwelling until the owner has first been given a reasonable opportunity to bring it into conformity with the housing code. This ordinance shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds in the county where the property or properties are located and shall be indexed in the name of the property owner in the grantor index.
(6) Abandonment of Intent to Repair. - If the dwelling has been vacated and closed for a period of one year pursuant to an ordinance adopted pursuant to subdivision (4) of this section or after a public officer issues an order or proceedings have commenced under the substandard housing regulations regarding a dwelling to be repaired or vacated and closed as provided in this subdivision, then the governing board may find that the owner has abandoned the intent and purpose to repair, alter, or improve the dwelling in order to render it fit for human habitation and that the continuation of the dwelling in its vacated and closed status would be inimical to the health, safety, and welfare of the local government in that the dwelling would continue to deteriorate, would create a fire and safety hazard, would be a threat to children and vagrants, would attract persons intent on criminal activities, would cause or contribute to blight and the deterioration of property values in the area, and would render unavailable property and a dwelling that might otherwise have been made available to ease the persistent shortage of decent and affordable housing in this State, then in such circumstances, the governing board may, after the expiration of such one-year period, enact an ordinance and serve such ordinance on the owner, setting forth the following:
a. If it is determined that the repair of the dwelling to render it fit for human habitation can be made at a cost not exceeding fifty percent (50%) of the then current value of the dwelling, the ordinance shall require that the owner either repair or demolish and remove the dwelling within 90 days.
b. If it is determined that the repair of the dwelling to render it fit for human habitation cannot be made at a cost not exceeding fifty percent (50%) of the then current value of the dwelling, the ordinance shall require the owner to demolish and remove the dwelling within 90 days.
This ordinance shall be recorded in the office of the register of deeds in the county wherein the property or properties are located and shall be indexed in the name of the property owner in the grantor index. If the owner fails to comply with this ordinance, the public officer shall effectuate the purpose of the ordinance.
(7) Liens. -
a. The amount of the cost of repairs, alterations, or improvements, or vacating and closing, or removal or demolition by the public officer shall be a lien against the real property upon which the cost was incurred, which lien shall be filed, have the same priority, and be collected as the lien for special assessment provided in Article 10 of Chapter 160A of the General Statutes.
b. If the real property upon which the cost was incurred is located in an incorporated city, then the amount of the cost is also a lien on any other real property of the owner located within the city limits or within one mile thereof except for the owner's primary residence. The additional lien provided in this sub-subdivision is inferior to all prior liens and shall be collected as a money judgment.
c. If the dwelling is removed or demolished by the public officer, the local government shall sell the materials of the dwelling, and any personal property, fixtures, or appurtenances found in or attached to the dwelling, and shall credit the proceeds of the sale against the cost of the removal or demolition, and any balance remaining shall be deposited in the superior court by the public officer, shall be secured in a manner directed by the court, and shall be disbursed by the court to the persons found to be entitled thereto by final order or decree of the court. Nothing in this section shall be construed to impair or limit in any way the power of the local government to define and declare nuisances and to cause their removal or abatement by summary proceedings or otherwise.
(8) Civil action. - If any occupant fails to comply with an order to vacate a dwelling, the public officer may file a civil action in the name of the local government to remove such occupant. The action to vacate the dwelling shall be in the nature of summary ejectment and shall be commenced by filing a complaint naming as defendant any person occupying such dwelling. The clerk of superior court shall issue a summons requiring the defendant to appear before a magistrate at a certain time, date, and place not to exceed 10 days from the issuance of the summons to answer the complaint. The summons and complaint shall be served as provided in G.S. 42-29. If the summons appears to have been duly served and if at the hearing the public officer produces a certified copy of an ordinance adopted by the governing board pursuant to subdivision (5) of this section authorizing the officer to proceed to vacate the occupied dwelling, the magistrate shall enter judgment ordering that the premises be vacated and that all persons be removed. The judgment ordering that the dwelling be vacated shall be enforced in the same manner as the judgment for summary ejectment entered under G.S. 42-30. An appeal from any judgment entered hereunder by the magistrate may be taken as provided in G.S. 7A-228, and the execution of such judgment may be stayed as provided in G.S. 7A-227. An action to remove an occupant of a dwelling who is a tenant of the owner may not be in the nature of a summary ejectment proceeding pursuant to this paragraph unless such occupant was served with notice at least 30 days before the filing of the summary ejectment proceeding that the governing board has ordered the public officer to proceed to exercise his duties under subdivisions (4) and (5) of this section to vacate and close or remove and demolish the dwelling.
(9) Additional notices to affordable housing organizations. - Whenever a determination is made pursuant to subdivision (3) of this section that a dwelling must be vacated and closed, or removed or demolished, under the provisions of this section, notice of the order shall be given by first-class mail to any organization involved in providing or restoring dwellings for affordable housing that has filed a written request for such notices. A minimum period of 45 days from the mailing of such notice shall be given before removal or demolition by action of the public officer, to allow the opportunity for any organization to negotiate with the owner to make repairs, lease, or purchase the property for the purpose of providing affordable housing. The public officer or clerk shall certify the mailing of the notices, and the certification shall be conclusive in the absence of fraud. Only an organization that has filed a written request for such notices may raise the issue of failure to mail such notices, and the sole remedy shall be an order requiring the public officer to wait 45 days before causing removal or demolition. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, ss. 40, 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1204. Heat source required.
(a) A local government shall, by ordinance, require that every dwelling unit leased as rental property within the city shall have, at a minimum, a central or electric heating system or sufficient chimneys, flues, or gas vents, with heating appliances connected, so as to heat at least one habitable room, excluding the kitchen, to a minimum temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit measured 3 feet above the floor with an outside temperature of 20 degrees Fahrenheit.
(b) If a dwelling unit contains a heating system or heating appliances that meet the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, the owner of the dwelling unit shall not be required to install a new heating system or heating appliances, but the owner shall be required to maintain the existing heating system or heating appliances in a good and safe working condition. Otherwise, the owner of the dwelling unit shall install a heating system or heating appliances that meet the requirements of subsection (a) of this section and shall maintain the heating system or heating appliances in a good and safe working condition.
(c) Portable kerosene heaters are not acceptable as a permanent source of heat as required by subsection (a) of this section but may be used as a supplementary source in single-family dwellings and duplex units. An owner who has complied with subsection (a) of this section shall not be held in violation of this section where an occupant of a dwelling unit uses a kerosene heater as a primary source of heat.
(d) This section applies only to local governments with a population of 200,000 or over within their planning and development regulation jurisdiction, according to the most recent decennial federal census.
(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to diminish the rights or remedies available to a tenant under a lease agreement, statute, or at common law or to prohibit a city from adopting an ordinance with more stringent heating requirements than provided for by this section. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, s. 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1205. Standards.
An ordinance adopted under this Article shall provide that the public officer may determine that a dwelling is unfit for human habitation if the officer finds that conditions exist in the dwelling that render it dangerous or injurious to the health, safety, or welfare of the occupants of the dwelling, the occupants of neighboring dwellings, or other residents of the jurisdiction. Defective conditions may include the following, without limiting the generality of the foregoing: defects therein increasing the hazards of fire, accident, or other calamities; lack of adequate ventilation, light, or sanitary facilities; dilapidation; disrepair; structural defects; or uncleanliness. The ordinances may provide additional standards to guide the public officers in determining the fitness of a dwelling for human habitation. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, s. 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1206. Service of complaints and orders.
(a) Complaints or orders issued by a public officer pursuant to an ordinance adopted under this Article shall be served upon persons either personally or by certified mail. When service is made by certified mail, a copy of the complaint or order may also be sent by regular mail. Service shall be deemed sufficient if the certified mail is unclaimed or refused but the regular mail is not returned by the post office within 10 days after the mailing. If regular mail is used, a notice of the pending proceedings shall be posted in a conspicuous place on the premises affected.
(b) If the identities of any owners or the whereabouts of persons are unknown and cannot be ascertained by the public officer in the exercise of reasonable diligence, or, if the owners are known but have refused to accept service by certified mail, and the public officer makes an affidavit to that effect, then the serving of the complaint or order upon the owners or other persons may be made by publication in a newspaper having general circulation in the jurisdiction at least once no later than the time at which personal service would be required under the provisions of this Article. When service is made by publication, a notice of the pending proceedings shall be posted in a conspicuous place on the premises thereby affected. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, s. 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1207. Periodic inspections.
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the inspection department may make periodic inspections only when there is reasonable cause to believe that unsafe, unsanitary, or otherwise hazardous or unlawful conditions may exist in a residential building or structure. However, when the inspection department determines that a safety hazard exists in one of the dwelling units within a multifamily building, which in the opinion of the inspector poses an immediate threat to the occupant, the inspection department may inspect, in the absence of a specific complaint and actual knowledge of the unsafe condition, additional dwelling units in the multifamily building to determine if that same safety hazard exists. For purposes of this section, the term "reasonable cause" means any of the following: (i) the landlord or owner has a history of more than two verified violations of the housing ordinances or codes within a 12-month period, (ii) there has been a complaint that substandard conditions exist within the building or there has been a request that the building be inspected, (iii) the inspection department has actual knowledge of an unsafe condition within the building, or (iv) violations of the local ordinances or codes are visible from the outside of the property. In conducting inspections authorized under this section, the inspection department shall not discriminate between single-family and multifamily buildings or between owner-occupied and tenant-occupied buildings. In exercising this power, members of the department shall have a right to enter on any premises within the jurisdiction of the department at all reasonable hours for the purposes of inspection or other enforcement action, upon presentation of proper credentials. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit periodic inspections in accordance with State fire prevention code or as otherwise required by State law.
(b) A local government may require periodic inspections as part of a targeted effort to respond to blighted or potentially blighted conditions within a geographic area that has been designated by the governing board. However, the total aggregate of targeted areas in the local government jurisdiction at any one time shall not be greater than 1 square mile or five percent (5%) of the area within the local government jurisdiction, whichever is greater. A targeted area designated by the local government shall reflect the local government's stated neighborhood revitalization strategy and shall consist of property that meets the definition of a "blighted area" or "blighted parcel" as those terms are defined in G.S. 160A-503(2) and G.S. 160A-503(2a), respectively, except that for purposes of this subsection, the planning board is not required to make a determination as to the property. The local government shall not discriminate in its selection of areas or housing types to be targeted and shall (i) provide notice to all owners and residents of properties in the affected area about the periodic inspections plan and information regarding a legislative hearing regarding the plan, (ii) hold a legislative hearing regarding the plan, and (iii) establish a plan to address the ability of low-income residential property owners to comply with minimum housing code standards.
(c) In no event may a local government do any of the following: (i) adopt or enforce any ordinance that would require any owner or manager of rental property to obtain any permit or permission under Article 11 or Article 12 of this Chapter from the local government to lease or rent residential real property or to register rental property with the local government, except for those individual properties that have more than four verified violations in a rolling 12-month period or two or more verified violations in a rolling 30-day period, or upon the property being identified within the top ten percent (10%) of properties with crime or disorder problems as set forth in a local ordinance, (ii) require that an owner or manager of residential rental property enroll or participate in any governmental program as a condition of obtaining a certificate of occupancy, (iii) levy a special fee or tax on residential rental property that is not also levied against other commercial and residential properties, unless expressly authorized by general law or applicable only to an individual rental unit or property described in clause (i) of this subsection and the fee does not exceed five hundred dollars ($500.00) in any 12-month period in which the unit or property is found to have verified violations, (iv) provide that any violation of a rental registration ordinance is punishable as a criminal offense, or (v) require any owner or manager of rental property to submit to an inspection before receiving any utility service provided by the local government. For purposes of this section, the term "verified violation" means all of the following:
(1) The aggregate of all violations of housing ordinances or codes found in an individual rental unit of residential real property during a 72-hour period.
(2) Any violations that have not been corrected by the owner or manager within 21 days of receipt of written notice from the local government of the violations. Should the same violation occur more than two times in a 12-month period, the owner or manager may not have the option of correcting the violation. If the housing code provides that any form of prohibited tenant behavior constitutes a violation by the owner or manager of the rental property, it shall be deemed a correction of the tenant-related violation if the owner or manager, within 30 days of receipt of written notice of the tenant-related violation, brings a summary ejectment action to have the tenant evicted.
(d) If a property is identified by the local government as being in the top ten percent (10%) of properties with crime or disorder problems, the local government shall notify the landlord of any crimes, disorders, or other violations that will be counted against the property to allow the landlord an opportunity to attempt to correct the problems. In addition, the local government and the county sheriff's office or city's police department shall assist the landlord in addressing any criminal activity, which may include testifying in court in a summary ejectment action or other matter to aid in evicting a tenant who has been charged with a crime. If the local government or the county sheriff's office or city's police department does not cooperate in evicting a tenant, the tenant's behavior or activity at issue shall not be counted as a crime or disorder problem as set forth in the local ordinance, and the property may not be included in the top ten percent (10%) of properties as a result of that tenant's behavior or activity.
(e) If the local government takes action against an individual rental unit under this section, the owner of the individual rental unit may appeal the decision to the housing appeals board or the zoning board of adjustment, if operating, or the planning board if created under G.S. 160D-301, or if neither is created, the governing board. The board shall fix a reasonable time for hearing appeals, shall give due notice to the owner of the individual rental unit, and shall render a decision within a reasonable time. The owner may appear in person or by agent or attorney. The board may reverse or affirm the action, wholly or partly, or may modify the action appealed from, and may make any decision and order that in the opinion of the board ought to be made in the matter. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, ss. 41, 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1208. Remedies.
(a) An ordinance adopted pursuant to this Article may provide for a housing appeals board as provided by G.S. 160D-305. An appeal from any decision or order of the public officer is a quasi-judicial matter and may be taken by any person aggrieved thereby or by any officer, board, or commission of the local government. Any appeal from the public officer shall be taken within 10 days from the rendering of the decision or service of the order by filing with the public officer and with the housing appeals board a notice of appeal that shall specify the grounds upon which the appeal is based. Upon the filing of any notice of appeal, the public officer shall forthwith transmit to the board all the papers constituting the record upon which the decision appealed from was made. When an appeal is from a decision of the public officer refusing to allow the person aggrieved thereby to do any act, the decision remains in force until modified or reversed. When any appeal is from a decision of the public officer requiring the person aggrieved to do any act, the appeal has the effect of suspending the requirement until the hearing by the board, unless the public officer certifies to the board, after the notice of appeal is filed with the officer, that because of facts stated in the certificate, a copy of which shall be furnished to the appellant, a suspension of the requirement would cause imminent peril to life or property. In that case the requirement is not suspended except by a restraining order, which may be granted for due cause shown upon not less than one day's written notice to the public officer, by the board, or by a court of record upon petition made pursuant to subsection (f) of this section.
(b) The housing appeals board shall fix a reasonable time for hearing appeals, shall give due notice to the parties, and shall render its decision within a reasonable time. Any party may appear in person or by agent or attorney. The board may reverse or affirm, wholly or partly, or may modify the decision or order appealed from, and may make any decision and order that in its opinion ought to be made in the matter, and, to that end, it has all the powers of the public officer, but the concurring vote of four members of the board is necessary to reverse or modify any decision or order of the public officer. The board also has power in passing upon appeals, when unnecessary hardships would result from carrying out the strict letter of the ordinance, to adapt the application of the ordinance to the necessities of the case to the end that the spirit of the ordinance is observed, public safety and welfare secured, and substantial justice done.
(c) Every decision of the housing appeals board is subject to review by proceedings in the nature of certiorari instituted within 15 days of the decision of the board, but not otherwise.
(d) Any person aggrieved by an order issued by the public officer or a decision rendered by the housing appeals board may petition the superior court for an injunction restraining the public officer from carrying out the order or decision and the court may, upon such petition, issue a temporary injunction restraining the public officer pending a final disposition of the cause. The petition shall be filed within 30 days after issuance of the order or rendering of the decision. Hearings shall be had by the court on a petition within 20 days and shall be given preference over other matters on the court's calendar. The court shall hear and determine the issues raised and shall enter such final order or decree as law and justice may require. It is not necessary to file bond in any amount before obtaining a temporary injunction under this subsection.
(e) If any dwelling is erected, constructed, altered, repaired, converted, maintained, or used in violation of this Article or of any ordinance or code adopted under authority of this Article or any valid order or decision of the public officer or board made pursuant to any ordinance or code adopted under authority of this Article, the public officer or board may institute any appropriate action or proceedings to prevent the unlawful erection, construction, reconstruction, alteration, or use; to restrain, correct, or abate the violation; to prevent the occupancy of the dwelling; or to prevent any illegal act, conduct, or use in or about the premises of the dwelling. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, ss. 42, 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1209. Compensation to owners of condemned property.
Nothing in this Article shall be construed as preventing the owner or owners of any property from receiving just compensation for the taking of property by the power of eminent domain under the laws of this State nor as permitting any property to be condemned or destroyed except in accordance with the police power of the State. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, s. 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1210. Additional powers of public officer.
An ordinance adopted by the governing board may authorize the public officer to exercise any powers necessary or convenient to carry out and effectuate the purpose and provisions of this Article, including the following powers in addition to others herein granted:
(1) To investigate the dwelling conditions in the local government's planning and development regulation jurisdiction in order to determine which dwellings therein are unfit for human habitation.
(2) To administer oaths, affirmations, examine witnesses, and receive evidence.
(3) To enter upon premises for the purpose of making examinations in a manner that will do the least possible inconvenience to the persons in possession.
(4) To appoint and fix the duties of officers, agents, and employees necessary to carry out the purposes of the ordinances.
(5) To delegate any of his or her functions and powers under the ordinance to other officers and other agents. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, s. 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1211. Administration of ordinance.
A local government adopting an ordinance under this Article shall, as soon as possible thereafter, prepare an estimate of the annual expenses or costs to provide the equipment, personnel, and supplies necessary for periodic examinations and investigations of the dwellings for the purpose of determining the fitness of dwellings for human habitation and for the enforcement and administration of its ordinances adopted under this Article. The local government is authorized to make appropriations from its revenues necessary for this purpose and may accept and apply grants or donations to assist it. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, s. 51(a), (b), (d).)
§ 160D-1212. Supplemental nature of Article.
Nothing in this Article shall be construed to abrogate or impair the powers of the courts or of any department of any local government to enforce any provisions of its charter or its ordinances or regulations nor to prevent or punish violations thereof. The powers conferred by this Article shall be supplemental to the powers conferred by any other law in carrying out the provisions of the ordinances. (2019-111, s. 2.4; 2020-3, s. 4.33(a); 2020-25, s. 51(a), (b), (d).)